Frequent moves, or even a single move, can be especially hard on children and adolescents. Studies show children who move frequently are more likely to have problems at school. Moves are even more difficult if accompanied by other significant changes in the child’s life, such as a death, divorce, loss of family income or a need to change schools.
Moves interrupt friendships. To a new child at school, it may at first seem that everyone else has a best friend or is securely involved with a group of peers. The child must get used to a different schedule and curriculum, and may be ahead in certain subjects and behind in others. This situation may make the child stressed, anxious or bored.
Children in kindergarten or first grade may be particularly vulnerable to a family move because developmentally they are just in the process of separating from their parents and adjusting to new authority figures and social relationships. The relocation can interfere with that normal process of separation by causing them to return to a more dependent relationship with their parents.
In general, the older the child, the more difficulty he or she will have with the move because of the increasing importance of the peer group. Preteens and teenagers may repeatedly protest the move, or ask to stay in their hometown with a friend’s family. Some youngsters may not talk about their distress, so parents should be aware of the warning signs of depression, including changes in appetite, social withdrawal, a drop in grades, irritability, sleep disturbances or other dramatic changes in behavior or mood. Children who seem depressed by a move may be reacting more to the stress they are experiencing than to the relocation.
If the child shows persistent signs of depression or distress, parents can ask their family doctor to refer them to a child and adolescent psychiatrist or therapist. The psychiatrist or therapist can evaluate and treat the child’s emotional problems that may be associated with stress and also help parents make the transition easier for the whole family.
While preparing for possible difficulties, remember that many good things can come from a move. The family may grow closer; parents may learn more about their children from going through the experience with them; and children may enjoy a new sense of independence and accomplishment. With the proper attention from parents, and professional help if necessary, moving can be a positive growth experience for children, leading to increased self-confidence and interpersonal skills.